ICS 314, Introduction to Software Engineering is part of the core curriculum and is a prerequisite to almost all upper division ICS courses. However, the concepts and technologies taught in ICS 314 can easily decay or be lost altogether if they are never reinforced after that single semester. The goal of this essay is to describe a variety of ways for teachers of upper division courses involving programming to easily integrate software engineering concepts taught in ICS 314. The hope is that by doing this, the students will gain deeper insight into software engineering, and that you as an instructor will obtain higher quality projects from your students without a lot of additional teaching on your part.
Here are ten recommendations. Even if you just incorporate a few of them, the improvement in retention and understanding of software engineering concepts in our students could be dramatic.
JetBrains IDEs are generally acknowledged as superior to Eclipse, NetBeans, Atom, etc. The universally cited downside is that these products are expensive: licenses normally cost about $200/year. Fortunately, this is a non-issue for us: JetBrains provides a free academic license to students and instructors. All of your students, having been through ICS 314, already have this license in effect and can use any JetBrains IDE. (Parenthetically, the JetBrains business model appears to be working.)
The one exception is if you are doing .NET and/or C# development: in that case Visual Studio Code is probably a better choice.
From a software engineering perspective, I do not believe it is in the best interest of the students to let them “use whatever IDE they want”. The IDE is, for a software engineer, analogous to the set of knives used by a chef: in both cases the tool is the most direct connection between the professional and their work product, and thus has a disproportionate impact on the quality and productivity of their work. The KCC culinary program does not let students use “whatever knives they want”; they require students to buy and use knives they have chosen as appropriate for a professional in training.
How to do it:
Tell your students that they are required to use the appropriate JetBrains IDE for software development (or VS Code, if you’re doing .NET or C#). Explain the advantages of using the required IDE over the alternatives, and that they can help each other better if they all use the same IDE. Periodically check during in-class development periods to see that they are using the required IDE, and use it yourself for in-class demos.
If a student has forgotten about JetBrains, refer them to the ICS 314 Development Environments module.
Modern coding standard tools have gone way beyond surface syntax checking. For example, ESLint can detect situations in which you should use more modern constructs (i.e. the use of
const rather than
var). As would be expected, JetBrains has excellent integrated support for automated coding standards:
How to do it:
If a student has forgotten about coding standards, refer them to the ICS 314 Coding Standards module.
Several of the software engineering practices I teach in 314 (and recommend below) require the use of GitHub. Requiring students to use GitHub provides them with a cloud-based backup service for their code. More importantly, it provides public access to their work products. This is good for them, because the more high quality code they can show future employers that they’ve written, the more professionally attractive they become. This is good for you, because you can encourage them to develop high quality projects not just so they get a good grade in your class, but also so that they have something interesting to show future employers.
Note that GitHub has a student developer pack, which all ICS 314 students have been awarded. This comes with several dozen free developer services of potential benefit to your course.
How to do it:
Tell your students that they will submit their code to you via a URL to a GitHub repository. Tell them that the project(s) they create in this course will improve their professional marketability (and of course make sure that this is true!) Utilize free services from the student developer pack if appropriate.
If a student has forgotten about GitHub, refer them to the ICS 314 Configuration Management module
GitHub Pages is a free service that makes it easy for students to create public documentation about their projects as part of their repository, and then render it with a choice of various HTML themes. In ICS 314, students learn what is appropriate to include in project documentation, such as an overview of the problem the application is intended to address, a user guide showing screenshots of each page and functionality in the system, a developer guide explaining how to download, install, and run the system, results from any user feedback on the system, the development history of the system, and how to contact the developers. They also learn how to format and publish this information using GitHub Pages.
For example, here is the first section of the project documentation for a Fall 2019 ICS 314 final project called Studious Manoa, available at https://studious-manoa.github.io/:
Part of the benefit of using GitHub Pages is that the documentation source files are stored along with the source code for the project in a single repository, making it more straightforward to keep the documentation in sync with the system.
How to do it:
Tell your students that they need to provide comprehensive documentation on their project, and that this documentation should be published using GitHub Pages. Tell them that the ability to produce project documentation is an important skill, and that a high quality example can be of value to them professionally.
If a student has forgotten what is involved in project documentation, refer them to the ICS 314 Agile Project Management module.
In their final essays on what they found most valuable about ICS 314 with respect to software engineering, the most common answer was learning how to manage team-based work using Issue Driven Project Management (IDPM). Issue Driven Project Management is an agile software development process I designed specifically for undergraduate team-based software development in a classroom setting using GitHub. In a nutshell, IDPM consists of the following:
Here is a screenshot of a Project Board for Milestone 3 of the Bowfolios project, which illustrates various aspects of IDPM. (This project has only a single developer, me!):
The actual Project Board is found here. (The state of this board might have changed if I’ve done development on this project since the writing of this essay.)
Students comment that prior to using IDPM, they had no effective, structured way to work with others that: (a) allowed for incremental, just-in-time planning; (b) enabled clear assignment of tasks and accountability; (c) facilitated concurrent development (through use of Git branching and merging); (d) made the status of development visible and clear (through Project Boards); and (e) provided a realistic definition of “deliverable” for each intermediate Milestone due date. Some claimed they would never have completed their team projects without IDPM.
Note that IDPM is useful to you as an instructor, as it makes visible the organization of each team’s development process, what they are planning to do, what each member is currently (supposed to be) working on, and some insight into what each member has accomplished. It is painfully obvious, both to you and to the team, when a team member is not contributing anything.
All that said, IDPM is a nontrivial process, and not all students may feel competent with it after just a single exposure in 314.
How to do it:
Implementing IDPM in your class will likely require some preparation on your part if you are not comfortable with GitHub Issues, branching and merging, and Project Boards. You might want to start by perusing the Readings section of the ICS 314 Agile Project Management module. My 14 minute screencast introducing IDPM might be helpful.
Next, you’ll need to structure your final project such that students are organized into teams, and are required to deliver at least one intermediate and one final Milestone. Tell them they will need to use IDPM to manage their project, and that you will be using their Project Boards to gain insight into their development process.
Many students might feel “rusty” with IDPM if it has been a while since they’ve used it. That’s to be expected: simply refer them to the ICS 314 Agile Project Management module to refresh their memory.
In student reviews of ICS 314, they frequently cite the material in the ICS 314 Ethics module as one of their most important learnings related to software engineering. This is very encouraging!
From this feedback, I infer that students will be receptive and interested in the ethical implications of other computer science topics beyond software engineering, and so you might want to consider integrating the ethical issues associated with your course topic into your syllabus.
How to do it:
You can review the ICS 314 Ethics module for ideas. Of particular interest might be the seven “Foundation” readings (which are adapted with permission from a module by Shannon Valor and Arvind Narayanan at Santa Clara University), as well as the ACM Code of Ethics.
In ICS 314, I have students do a set of readings on a topic (in this past semester, it was about Facebook and data privacy), and then split into teams to debate the pro and con of a question (in this past semester, it was “Am I ethically obligated to delete my Facebook account?”). Assertions either pro or con should be backed up by reference to the Code of Ethics. This format worked quite well and most students seemed to gain new insights into ethics as a result.
All students in ICS 314 are required to create a professional portfolio using TechFolios. One advantage of TechFolios is that it becomes straightforward to implement a script to aggregate together ICS student portfolios into a single site, which I’ve done and the results of which are available at https://ics-portfolios.github.io/undergrads/.
For students, professional portfolios have many advantages, including:
On the last day of ICS 314, I encourage students to think about all of their future ICS classes in terms of “what will this course enable me to add to my professional portfolio?” There are two general answers:
One way to help our students is to design your courses such that there is an “outcome” appropriate for inclusion in their professional portfolio, and then help them to make a high quality addition to their portfolio regarding this outcome.
How to do it:
This can be pretty simple. If your course involves the writing of a paper, then require them to submit that paper to you as a link to an essay in their professional portfolio. Note that you may need to stress that this outcome should be written for a general audience, not just for the professor, and should not assume prior knowledge about the class. (In my experience, these criteria usually increases the quality of the paper.)
If your course involves the development of a project, then require them to submit their project to you as a link to a project page in their professional portfolio. Once again, you may need to stress that the documentation should be designed for a general audience, not just for you or for fellow class members.
If a student has forgotten about professional portfolios, you can refer them to the ICS 314 Professional Persona module.
If your course involves application development for users, it is a game changer for students to actually hear what real users say about their system. Even if there aren’t “users”, the development of tests is a significant quality assurance process.
How to do it:
The technology for testing and user experience assessment is quite contextual. You will likely need to develop this material yourself. That said, you might find the ICS 314 modules on testing and usability evaluation to be of use.
Don’t be afraid to require your students to design and implement a database as part of their project. In ICS 314, almost none of the students had any prior experience with databases, and I provided a reasonable overview in a one week module on MongoDB.
Hopefully, your situation will be better: by the time they have taken your course, they might have completed ICS 321, and will have much more facility with databases.
How to do it:
Do not be dissuaded from requiring a database just because some students have not taken ICS 321. As long as they have taken ICS 314, they are able to create databases.
If a student has forgotten how to create a database, you can refer them to the ICS 314 module on databases, which presents basic concepts of MongoDB databases, and the ICS 314 module on deployment, which explains how to create free, cloud-based Mongo databases using Atlas.
I leave this recommendation as the final one, because it is the most complicated one and is probably not applicable to many upper division ICS courses. But, the most complete leveraging of ICS 314 material will occur if you require your students to build a web application as the interface to whatever domain-specific functionality you are teaching in your course.
In some cases, creating a browser-based interface to your course topic could be transformative to students in terms of understanding how to make that material broadly accessible to users. It might also be very useful to them in terms of their professional skill set and post-graduation marketability. Finally, it can simplify user evaluation.
How to do it:
If you are considering this recommendation, which I hope you will, it might be useful for us to have a conversation where I can learn about your course topic and we can strategize the best approach to providing a web application for it, and what pitfalls may occur for students based upon their learnings in ICS 314.